welding banner 3Welding is the fabrication process that fuses like materials togeather by heating them to a suitable temperatures, this can be acomplished by brazing, soldering or welding. The filler metal has a melting point approximately the same or below that of the metals being joined togeather.  Welding is done by melting like metals then add a filler material to the joint, once cooled forming a sturdy joint.  Brazing and soldering is the melting of a filler material that is pulled into the gap between materials joining them togeather.  The brazing filler has a melting point below the materials being joind togeather.

There are many different types of welds, techniques, designs, codes and procedures.


  • WLD - welded
  • WLDR - welder
  • WLDS - weldess



ISO Standards

  • ISO 693 - Dimensions of seam welding wheel blanks
  • ISO 4850 - Personal eye-protectors for welding and related techniques -- Filters -- Utilisation and transmittance requirements
  • ISO 7286 - Graphical symbols for resistance welding equipment
  • ISO 8167 - Projections for resistance welding
  • ISO 15607 - Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials -- General rules
  • ISO 17846 - Welding and allied processes -- Health and safety -- Wordless precautionary labels for equipment and consumables used in arc welding and cuttin


Welding Associations


welding Related Articles


welding Terms


  • Alloy  -  A mixture of metals.
  • Annealing  -  A method of heat treating used to relieve stress and increase softening.
  • Arc  -  A gap between the end of the electrode and the base metal.
  • Arc length  -  The distance between the material and the electrode tip.
  • Arc time  -  How long a welder can weld without any problems per 8 hours.
  • Arc voltage  - The voltage across the welding arc.
  • Arc welding  -  A group of welding processes used to weld metal using heat of an electric arc, with or without filler material.  Process types: bare metal arc welding, carbon arc welding, flux cored arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, plasma arc welding, shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, atomic hydrogen welding.


  • Base metal  - A part that all other parts are being brazed, cut, soldered, or welded to.
  • Bevel  - An angle edge cut or ground.
  • Blow hole  -  Formed due to the gas in the liquid metal and the weld can not escape when metal puddles solidify.
  • Bond  -  The junction of the weld metal and the base metal.
  • Brazing  -  The brazing filler metal melts at a temperature having a liquid above 450 deg C and always below the base metal being joined.
  • Burr  -  A sharp thin ridge of roughness left after cutting.
  • Butt joint  -  Joining two metals aligned approximately of lying on the same plane.
  • Buttweld  -  A weld at the butt joint.


  • Carbon arc welding  -  A welding process produced with an electric arc is struck between a carbon electrode and the work piece.  See arc weld.
  • Case hardning  -  Adding carbon to the surface of a mild steel object and heat treating to produce a hard surface.
  • Coated electrode  -
  • Cover pass  -  The final pass of the weld that forms the face.
  • Critical temperature  -
  • Current density  -
  • Cutting torch  -


  • Defective weld  -  A weld having one or more defects.
  • Density  -  The ratio of the amount of matter in an object compared to its volume.


  • Electric arc  -
  • Electrode  -  Conducts current through, creating an arc through the tip of the electrode to the metal.  The electrode is made with a composit material similar to the material being welded. 


  • Field weld  -  A weld made at a location other than the shop or place of construction.
  • Filler material  -  A metal added to make a joint.
  • Flame hardning  -
  • Flux  -  A chemical compound to hender or stop the formation of oxides and other substances in the moltent metal.


  • Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)  -  A welding process produced with an electric arc that adds inert gas in order to ensure that oxidation does not occur during the menting process.  See arc weld and heliarc welding.
  • Gas tungsten arc welding (TIG)  -  Is a welding method working with aluminum, magnesium, nickle, titanium, and copper alloys.  See arc weld and TIG welding.
  • Gas welding  -  See solid-state welding.
  • Groove weld  -


  • Hardfacing  -
  • Heliarc welding  -  See gas metal arc welding (GMAW).  See arc weld and TIG welding.
  • Hot pass  -  A second pass in a multi-pass joint.


  • Incomplete weld  -  A defect in the solder joint that causes cracks or damage to the bond.
  • Inert gas  -


  • Joint  -  The junction of members or the edge of members that are joined or to be joined.


  • Kerfs  -


  • Liquidus  -


  • Material hardness  -  The property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration.
  • MIG welding  -  Gas metal arc welding (MIG) is a welding method working with steel.


  • Neutral flame  -  Is when oxygen and acetylene are mixed in equal porporttions.  See oxyfuel gas welding.
  • Non-ferrous  -
  • Normalization  -


  • Overlap  -  Liquid metal surface is not melting on the weld.
  • Oxidizing flame  -  Is when an excess amount of oxygen is used.  See oxyfuel gas welding.
  • Oxyfuel gas welding  -  A group of welding processes used to weld metal using heat from a combination of oxygen and a fuel gas.  Process types: air acetylene welding, oxyacetylenr welding, oxygen/propane welding, oxyhydrogen welding, and pressure gas welding.


  • Peening  -
  • Plug weld  -  Joining two pieces of metal through a drilled hole or slot in the top piece which is laid over the bottom piece.
  • Porosity  -  Results when a contaminent or gas is absorbed into the weld puddle.
  • Puddle  -  A nonstandard term for weld pool.
  • Pulsation welding  -


  • Quenching  -


  • Reducing flame  -  Is when an excess amount of acetylene is used.  See oxyfuel gas welding.
  • Resistance welding  -  A group of welding processes used to weld metal using electric current to force join by pressure of the metals.  The current passed through and heats the metals until they begin to melt at the spot where they are in contact.  Process types: flash welding, projection welding, resistance spot welding, resistance seam welding, and upset welding.
  • Root of joint  -
  • Root of weld  -
  • Running a bead  -  The process of making a weld.


  • Seal weld  -
  • Seam welding  -
  • Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)  -  Is one of the older arc welding method by heating with an arc between a covered electrode to the metal.  See arc weld and stick welding.
  • Shielding gas  -  A divice used to verify actual gas flow rate at the weld torch.
  • Soldering  -  The solder filler metal melts at a temperature having a liquid below 450 deg C and uses a flux is to clean the metal suface allowing the solder to flow easy.
  • Slag inclusion  -  It is introduced in the weld, between welds and the surface of the weld.
  • Slot weld  -
  • Solid-state welding  -  A group of welding processes used to weld metal by requiring a temperatures below the melting point of the base metal being joined, without the addition of brazing filter metal.  Process types: coextrusion welding, cold pressure welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, electromagnetic pulse welding, forge welding, friction welding, friction stir welding, friction stir spot welding, hot pressure welding, hot isostatic pressure welding, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding.
  • Splatter  -  Droplets of moltent metal over the surface near an arc weld.
  • Stainless steel wire  -
  • Stick electrode  -
  • Stick welding  -  See shielded metal arc welding (SMAW).


  • Thermal resistance  -  Measures the temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow.
  • TIG welding  -  See gas tungsten arc welding (TIG).


  • Undercut  -  Can cause high stress and structural damage.



  • Weld crack  -  Cracks can appear on the surface, inside the weld or heat effected zone.
  • Weld face  -  The exposed surface of the weld on the side from which welding was done.
  • Weld pool  -  A small body of moltent metal created by the arc of the tourch.
  • Welding  -  Used to join most all metals whether thin or thick and suitable for high-temperature applications, producing a strong joint than brazing or soldering.
  • Welding defects  -  Blow hole, defect of joint shape, incomplete fusion, overlap, slag inclusion, undercut, weld crack.
  • Welding electrodes  -  Arc weld electrode, barr electrode, carbon electrode, flux-cored electrode, metal electrode, stranded electrode, and tungsten electrode.
  • Welding joint  -  Butt joint, corner joint, edge joint, lap joint, square joint, and tee joint.
  • Welding processes  -  Arc welding, oxyfuel gas welding, resistance welding, and solid-state welding.




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Hot Work Permit
Incomplete Fusion
Incomplete Penetration
Overlapping Plates - Axial Force on Fillet Weld 1
Overlapping Plates - Axial Force on Fillet Weld 2
Overlapping Plates - Axial Force on Fillet Weld 3
Overlapping Plates - Axial Force on Fillet Weld 4
Overlapping Plates - Axial Force on Fillet Weld 5
Welded Stress and Strain Connections
Welding Groups & Processes