Metal Element

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periodic table metalThe physical properties of metals, abbreviated as MET, have characteristic such as shiny, hard, high density, malleable, high melting point and can conduct electricity and heat well.

Metal Element Index



The actinide elements are a series of chemical elements found in Group 3 of the periodic table, which is in the f-block. This series includes elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103.  The actinides are often considered together because they share similar properties, particularly in terms of their electronic structure.  These elements are typically characterized by the filling of the 5f orbitals.

Actinides have important applications, especially in the field of nuclear energy.  Uranium, for example, is a key fuel in nuclear reactors. Plutonium, another actinide, is also used as a nuclear fuel and in the production of nuclear weapons.  The study of actinide chemistry is significant in understanding the behavior of heavy radioactive elements and their compounds.  Due to their radioactivity, handling and managing actinides present challenges, and there are environmental and safety concerns associated with their use.

Actinide Element

Element Name Element Symbol Atomic Number Periodic Group Number Periodic Period Number
Actinium Ac 89 - 7
Americium Am 95 - 7
Berkelium Bk 97 - 7
Californium Cf 98 - 7
Curium Cm 96 - 7
Einsteinium Es 99 - 7
Fermium Fm 100 - 7
Mendelevium Md 101 - 7
Neptunium Np 93 - 7
Nobelium No 102 - 7
Plutonium Pu 94 - 7
Protactinium Pa 91 - 7
Thorium Th 90 - 7
Uranium U 92 - 7


alkali metal

The alkali metals are found in Group 1 of the Periodic Table and they are highly reactive and usually found with other elements in nature, rarely by themselves. These are silvery colored, soft, low density metals.  These elements are highly reactive metals, and they are so named because they form alkaline solutions (hydroxides) when they react with water.  Hydrogen is also found in group 1, even though it is classified as a Other Nonmetal. It rarely has the characteristics of an alkali metal, but when it is under extremely high pressure it acts like one.

Key points about alkali metals

  • Softness  -  Alkali metals are generally soft and can be easily cut with a knife.  This is due to their relatively weak metallic bonding, which allows their atoms to slide past each other.
  • Low Density  -  Alkali metals have low densities compared to many other metals.  For example, lithium is the least dense solid element.
  • Low Melting and Boiling Points  -  Alkali metals generally have low melting and boiling points compared to other metals.  This makes them suitable for various applications, such as in heat transfer systems.
  • High Reactivity  -  Alkali metals are highly reactive, especially with water.  When alkali metals react with water, they produce hydrogen gas and an alkaline solution.  The reactivity increases down the group.
  • Single Valence Electron  -  All alkali metals have a single valence electron in their outermost electron shell, which makes them prone to losing that electron to form a positive ion.

These metals are crucial in various industrial applications.  For example, sodium and potassium are essential for biological processes in living organisms, and they are commonly found in salts.  Additionally, alkali metals like lithium are used in batteries, and cesium finds applications in atomic clocks. However, due to their high reactivity, alkali metals are usually stored and handled with care to prevent reactions with moisture and air.

Alkali Metal Element

Element Name Element Symbol Atomic Number Periodic Group Number Periodic Period Number
Caesium Cs 55 1 6
Francium Fr 87 1 7
Lithium Li 3 1 2
Potassium K 19 1 4
Rubidium Rb 37 1 5
Sodium Na 11 1 3


Alkaline Earth Metal

The alkaline earth metals are a group of chemical elements found in Group 2 of the periodic table.  These elements are silver colored, soft metals that will only melt at very high temperatures.  These elements share certain similarities in their chemical properties due to their common electron configuration in the outermost electron shell.

Key points about alkaline earth metals

  • Reactivity  -  Alkaline earth metals are reactive but less so than the alkali metals in Group 1.  They readily form compounds, especially oxides and hydroxides, with oxygen and water.
  • Single Valence Electron  -  Like the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals also have a relatively low number of electrons in their outermost electron shell.  In this case, there are two valence electrons.
  • Increasing Atomic Size  -  The atomic size increases down the group.  As you move from beryllium to radium, the atoms become larger.
  • Low Density: Alkaline earth metals generally have low densities, and they are lighter than most transition metals.
  • Higher Melting and Boiling Points  -  Compared to alkali metals, alkaline earth metals have higher melting and boiling points, reflecting the stronger metallic bonding in these elements.
  • Use in Alloys  -  Some alkaline earth metals, particularly magnesium and calcium, are used in alloys to enhance the properties of metals.
  • Biological Importance  -  Calcium and magnesium are essential elements for living organisms.  Calcium is crucial for bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, and muscle function, while magnesium is a component of chlorophyll in plants and is important for various cellular processes.
  • Radium's Radioactivity  -  Radium, the heaviest element in this group, is radioactive.  It was discovered by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie in 1898 and was once used in luminous paint due to its natural radioactivity.  However, its use has declined due to its health risks.

Alkaline earth metals play important roles in various industrial, biological, and environmental processes.  Understanding their properties and reactivity is essential for applications ranging from construction materials to medical treatments.

Alkaline Earth Metal Element

Element Name Element Symbol Atomic Number Periodic Group Number Periodic Period Number
Barium Ba 56 2 6
Beryllium Be 4 2 2
Calcium Ca 20 2 4
Magnesium Mg 12 2 3
Radium Ra 88 2 7
Strontium Sr 38 2 5



The lanthanides, also known as the lanthanoid series or rare earth elements, are a group of chemical elements found in the f-block of the periodic table.

Key points about lanthanide elements

  • Similar Properties  -  The lanthanides share similar chemical properties due to the filling of their 4f electron orbitals.  This results in comparable atomic and ionic sizes.
  • Metallic Nature  -  Lanthanides are metals with shiny and silvery appearances.  They are generally good conductors of electricity.
  • High Magnetic Susceptibility:  -  Many lanthanides exhibit high magnetic susceptibility, making them useful in various applications, including the production of strong permanent magnets.
  • Use in Technology  -  Lanthanides find applications in various technologies.  For example, neodymium and samarium are used in the production of powerful magnets, europium is used in phosphors for color television tubes, and gadolinium is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents.
  • Complex Chemistry  -  Lanthanides have complex coordination chemistry due to the presence of multiple oxidation states and the similarity of their electron configurations.
  • Promethium's Radioactivity  -  Promethium is the only lanthanide that does not have a stable isotope.  It is radioactive and does not occur naturally in large quantities.

It's worth noting that the lanthanides are distinct from the actinides, which are another series of elements found in the f-block of the periodic table.  Both lanthanides and actinides are important in various scientific, industrial, and technological applications, and they exhibit unique properties due to the filling of their respective f-orbitals

Lanthanide Element

Element Name Element Symbol Atomic Number Periodic Group Number Periodic Period Number
Cerium Ce 58 - 6
Dysprosium Dy 66 - 6
Erbium Er 68 - 6
Europium Eu 63 - 6
Gadolinium Gd 64 - 6
Holmium Ho 67 - 6
Lanthanum La 57 - 6
Neodymium Nd 60 - 6
Praseodymium Pr 59 - 6
Promethium Pm 61 - 6
Samarium Sm 62 - 6
Terbium Tb 65 - 6
Thulium Tm 69 - 6
Ytterbium Yb 70 - 6


post-transition metal

Post-transition metals are elements found in the periodic table between the transition metals and the metalloids.  They include elements from groups 13 to 16 (boron to radon).

Key points about post-transition metals

  • Metallic Properties  -  Like transition metals, post-transition metals are generally metallic in nature.  They have metallic luster, conduct electricity, and tend to form positive ions.
  • Lower Melting and Boiling Points  -  Compared to the transition metals, post-transition metals often have lower melting and boiling points.
  • Varied Properties  -  Post-transition metals exhibit a range of properties.  For example, boron (B) and aluminum (Al) are metalloids or have some metalloid-like properties, while gallium (Ga) and indium (In) are true metals. Tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) are post-transition metals with distinctive properties.
  • Ductility and Malleability  -  Some post-transition metals, such as tin and lead, are ductile and malleable, meaning they can be stretched into thin wires or shaped into thin sheets.
  • Metallic Bonding  -  Post-transition metals typically form metallic bonds due to the delocalization of electrons within the metal lattice.

These elements often display a mix of metallic and non-metallic properties, and they are important in various industrial applications.  For instance, aluminum is widely used in the aerospace and construction industries, tin is used in soldering, and lead has been historically used in a variety of applications, although its use is now limited due to environmental concerns.

Post-transition Metal Element

Element Name Element Symbol Atomic Number Periodic Group Number Periodic Period Number
Aluminum Al 13 13 3
Bismuth Bi 83 15 6
Gallium Ga 31 13 4
Indium In 49 13 5
Lead Pb 82 14 6
Thallium Tl 81 13 6
Tin Sn 50 14 5
Ununhexium Uuh 116 16 7
Ununpentium Uup 115 15 7
Ununquadium Uuq 114 14 7
Ununtrium Uut 113 13 7


Transition metal

Transition metals are a group of elements found in the central portion of the periodic table, spanning from groups 3 to 12.  These elements are known for their unique electronic configurations, particularly the filling of their d orbitals.

Key points about Transition metals

  • Variable Oxidation States  -  Transition metals can exhibit multiple oxidation states or valence states.  The presence of partially filled d orbitals allows them to readily lose or gain electrons.
  • Formation of Colored Compounds  -  Transition metal compounds often display vibrant colors due to the transitions of electrons between d orbitals.
  • Complex Formation  -  Transition metals have a tendency to form complex ions and compounds.  They can coordinate with ligands, forming coordination complexes with characteristic structures.
  • Paramagnetism  -  Many transition metals are paramagnetic, meaning they are attracted to a magnetic field due to the presence of unpaired electrons.
  • High Melting and Boiling Points  -  Transition metals generally have high melting and boiling points, contributing to their utility in various industrial applications.
  • Metallic Properties  -  Transition metals are good conductors of electricity and have metallic luster.  They typically have high densities and are malleable and ductile.
  • Catalytic Activity  -  Many transition metals and their compounds serve as catalysts in chemical reactions.  Their ability to change oxidation states makes them effective in facilitating reaction pathways.

Transition metals play crucial roles in various industrial processes, from catalysis to the production of alloys and electronic devices.  They are found in everyday items, such as jewelry, coins, and electronics.

Transition Metal Element

 Element Name Element Symbol   Atomic Number Periodic Group Number  Periodic Period Number 
Bohrium Bh 107 7 7
Cadmium Cd 48 12 5
Chromium Cr 24 6 4
Cobalt Co 27 9 4
Copper Cu 29 11 4
Dubnium Db 105 5 7
Gold Au 79 11 6
Hahnium Hf 72 4 6
Hassium Hs 108 8 7
Iridium Ir 77 9 6
Iron Fe 26 8 4
Manganese Mn 25 7 4
Mercury Hg 80 12 6
Molybdenum Mo 42 6 5
Nickel Ni 28 10 4
Niobium Nb 41 5 5
Osmium Os 76 8 6
Palladium Pd 46 10 5
Platinum Pt 78 10 6
Rhenium Re 75 7 6
Rhodium Rh 45 9 5
Rutherfordium Rf 104 4 7
Ruthenium Ru 44 8 5
Scandium Sc 21 3 4
Seaborgium Sg 106 6 7
Silver Ag 47 11 5
Tantalum Ta 73 5 6
Technetium Tc 43 7 5
Titanium Ti 22 4 4
Tungsten W 74 6 6
Ununbium Uub 112 12 7
Vanadium V 23 5 4
Yttrium Y 39 3 5
Zinc Zn 30 12 4
Zirconium Zr 40 4 5


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