Matter

Written by Jerry Ratzlaff on . Posted in Thermodynamics

When you look around, everything you see or may not see in the universe is made up of matter.  If it has a mass and takes up space, it is matter.  There are three basic states of matter that everybody can recognize, gas, liquid, and solid.  There is a fourth which most people do not thinks of, plasma, it the most common state of them all.

Gas

Gas, abbreviated as $$G$$, is able to be compressed to fit a confined space and expanded when released.

Liquid

Liquids, abbreviated as $$LIQ$$, have a specific volume and can hold any shape it is contained within.  Depending on its elements, the density and weight will vary. A liquids molecules are close together with no particular pattern and continually move past each other, this allows it to flow and move about.  Having little space between the molecules leaves little room to compress.

Plasma

Plasma is the four phase of matter.  It is everywhere in the universe and the most common of all matter.  Of all types of matter it is closest to a gas.

Solid

A solid has particles that are compressed together in an orderly pattern.

Matter transition  phases

Phase ChangeName
gas to liquid condensation
liquid to gas vaporization
gas to solid deposition
solid to gas sublimation
gas to plasma ionization
plasma to gas recombination
liquid to solid freezing
solid to liquid melting

Enthalpy of system

The chart to the right shows the transitional phase change between gas, liquid, an solid.  Gas having the highest enthalpy, liquid having intermediate enthalpy, and liquid having the lowest enthalpy.

Phase to phase transition

This diagram shows the arrangement of the physical properties between solids, liquids, and gas.