# Buoyancy

Buoyancy, abbreviated as B, is when a liquid applies upward force on an object that is completely submerged or floating.

## Buoyancy Types

- Positive buoyancy - when the liquid force is greater than the object weight displacement.
- Negative buoyancy - when the liquid force is less than the object weight displacement.
- Neutral buoyancy - when the liquid force is equal to the object weight displacement.

## Buoyancy formulas

\(\large{ B = p \;A }\) |

\(\large{ B = \rho\; V\; g }\) |

\(\large{ B = \rho \;g \;h\; A }\) |

### Where:

Units |
English |
Metric |

\(\large{ B }\) = buoyancy force | \(\large{ lbf }\) | \(\large{N}\) |

\(\large{ V }\) = displaced volume | \(\large{ ft^3 }\) | \(\large{ m^3 }\) |

\(\large{ \rho }\) (Gtrrk symbol rho) = fluid density | \(\large{\frac{lbm}{ft^3}}\) | \(\large{\frac{kg}{m^3}}\) |

\(\large{ g }\) = gravitational acceleration | \(\large{\frac{ft}{sec^2}}\) | \(\large{\frac{m}{s^2}}\) |

\(\large{ h }\) = height of liquid displaced by a floating object | \(\large{ ft }\) | \(\large{ m }\) |

\(\large{ p }\) = pressure | \(\large{\frac{lbf}{in^2}}\) | \(\large{\frac{N}{m^2}}\) |

\(\large{ A }\) = surface area of object | \(\large{ ft^2 }\) | \(\large{ m^2 }\) |

Tags: Liquid Equations Hydraulic Equations Buoyancy Equations