Valve

valve banner 3Valves, abbreviated as V, are mechanical devices used to control the flow of fluids (liquids or gases) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing a passage.  Valves are used in a wide range of applications, from residential plumbing to industrial processes.  Valves can be made of various materials, such as metal, plastic, or ceramic, depending on the application and the type of fluid being handled.  They can also be operated manually or automatically, using mechanisms such as handwheels, levers, or electric motors.

 

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Valve Index

 

Valve Design Classification

  • Ball Valve  -  A ball valve, abbreviated as BV, is a quarter turn valve used for changing the direction of a process stream (divert or shut off).  Ball valves can be automated to automatically shutdown or open depending on the orientation of the actuator.
    • Full Port Ball Valve
    • Non-trunion (Floating) Ball Valve
    • Reduced Port Ball Valve
    • Standard Port Ball Valve
    • Metal Seated Ball Valve
    • Multi Port Ball Valve
    • Trunnion Ball Valve
    • V Port Ball Valve
  • Butterfly Valve  -  A butterfly valve, abbreviated as BTFLV, is a quarter turn valve (90° or less) with a circular disk as its closing element.  The standard design has the valve stem running through the disk, giving a symmetrical appearance.
    • Double Offset Butterfly Valve
    • Fire Tight Valve
    • Flange Style Butterfly Valve
    • High Performance Butterfly Valve
    • Lug Style Butterfly Valve
    • Triple Offset Butterfly Valve
    • Wafer Style Butterfly Valve
    • Zero Offset Butterfly Valve
  • Check Valve  -  Check valves, abbreviated as CV, are valves that are designed to allow the process fluid to flow in only one direction to prevent backflow.  Check valves are also known as non-return valves, clack valves or one-way valves.
    • Back Pressure Check Valve
    • Ball Check Valve
    • Diaphragm Check Valve
    • Dual Plate Check Valve
      • Flange Check Valve
      • Lug Check Valve
      • Wafer Check Valve
    • Duckbill Check Valve
    • Foot Check Valve
    • Lift Check Valve
    • Non-slam Check Valve
    • Nozzle Check Valve
    • Piston Check Valve
    • Pneumatic Check Valve
    • Silent Check Valve
    • Spring Loaded Check Valve
    • Stop Check Valve
    • Swing Check Valve
    • Tilting Disk Check Valve
  • Control Valve  -  A type of valve that is use to control the flow, pressure, level or even the direction of the fluid according to the need of the process.
    • Back Pressure Valve
    • Choke Valve
    • Flow Control Valve
    • Level Control Valve
    • Pressure Control Valve
    • Temperature Control Valve
  • Diaphragm Valve  -  This is a shut-off valve and is bi-directional.  A diaphragm is the opening and closing element in the valve which is made of a soft, flexible material which is elastic, non-corrosive, nonpermeable material such as rubber and plastic.  This separates the fluid inside the valve body cavity from the cover cavity and the driving member which prevents contamination of the working medium and corrosion of operating parts.
    • In-line Diaphragm Valve (Straight through Diaphragm Valve)
    • Weir Diaphragm Valve
  • Gate Valve  -  The gate valve, abbreviated as GV, is one of the most frequently used valve in piping systems and is classified as either "rising-stem" or "nonrising-stem" valves.  The rising-stem gate valve has the stem attached to the gate, both gate and stem rise and lower together as the valve handwheel or actuator turns the stem.  In the nonrising-stem gate valves the stem is threaded into the wedge, rising and lowering the wedge.
    • Double Disk Valve
    • Double Seat Gate Valve
    • Flap Gate Valve
    • Flexible Wedge Gate Valve
    • Knife Gate Valve
    • Parallel Slide Gate Valve
    • Slide Gate Valve
    • Solid Wedge Gate Valve
    • Split Wedge Gate Valve
  • Globe Valve  -  A globe valve, abbreviated as GLV, is a type of valve used for regulating fluid flow, both on/off and throttling, it is a control valve.  The name globe valve comes from the globular shape of the valve body.
    • Angle Globe Valve
    • Oblique Globe Valve
    • Straight Globe Valve
    • Tee Globe Valve
    • Y Globe Valve
    • Z Globe Valve
  • Needle Valve  -  A valve with an adjustable tapered point which regulates the rate of flow.
  • Pig Valve  -  A pigging valve is an alternative to conventional pig launchers.  They are capable of launching and receiving foam, steel, and solid cast pigs in both cylindrical and spherical shapes.  Original designs would only allow spherical shapes but machining innovations and technology have allowed for other shapes of pigs such as cups, disc, brushes and also foam pigs can be used.
    • Pig Ball Valve
  • Pinch Valve  -  These valves are suited for the handling of slurries, liquids with large amounts of suspended solids, and systems that convey solids pneumatically.  They consists of a sleeve molded of rubber or other synthetic material and a pinching mechanism.  The sleve can be external or internal inside a body.
    • Enclosed Pinch Valve
    • Open Pinch Valve
  • Plug Valve  -  A plug valve is a quarter turn valve that has a conical or cylindrical plug that is rotated within the valve body to stop flow when needed.  Plug valves function similar to a ball valve where the plug has an opening in the plug that allows fluid to flow through the valve when it is open.
    • Eccentric Plug Valve
    • Expanding Plug Valve
    • Fire-safe Plug Valve
    • Lift Plug Valve
    • Lubricating Plug Valve
    • Non-lubricating Plug Valve 
    • Multi Port Plug Valve
  • Pressure Valve  -  Both the relief and safety valves work to release excess pressure, but each go about it is a little different.
    • Pressure Relief Valve  -   Relief valves removes excessive pressure from a system by limiting its pressure level to a safe level.  The valve opens gradually during normal operation to maintain an optimal pressure level inside the vessel.
      • Relief Valve
      • Safety Valve
      • Safety Relief Valve  -  Safety valves provide relief from pressure.  This valve opens quickly to avoid overpressurization when a set pressure is reached, preventing a potential safety incident.
        • Balanced Pressure Safety Valve
        • Convential (Spring Loaded) Pressure Safety Valve
        • Pilot Operatedl Pressure Safety Valve
        • Power Actuated Pressure Safety Valve
        • Temperature Pressure Actuated Safety Valve

 

Valve Mechanical Motion Classification

 

Valve Actuator Design Classification

  • Manual Valve Actuator  -  The actuator can shift a valve to the right position without using an external power source.  Manual actuators use levers, wheels, and/or gears to facilitate movement.  Manual actuators differ from automatic actuators, as automatic actuators have an external power source providing the force and motion needed to operate a valve automatically or remotely.
    • Linear Actuator  -  Linear actuators differ in terms of valve stem stroke length, number of turns, and actuator force or seating thrust.
      • Hand Wheel  -  Larger valves that require high torque to operate often use geared hand wheels.  These operators have a large hand wheel with a gearbox that further increases the mechanical advantage.  The radius of the wheel and gearing ratio determines the amount of mechanical advantage provided.
        • Hand Wheel Fixed to Steem  -  The hand wheel fixed to the stem provides a mechanical advantage.  In higher temperatures, these types of handwheels fixed are susceptible to thermal binding.  When you shut of a valve while it is hot and allow it to cool, it can get stuck, making it impossible for you to reopen the valve. 
        • Hammer Hand Wheel  -  Comprises of a wheel, lug, and second wheel attached to a threaded stem.  Based on the design, the primary wheel moves through a portion of its turn freely and then hits against the lug in the second wheel.
        • Gear Hand Wheel  -  Depending on the design of the valve, you may need to fit in manually operated gears around the bonnet for additional mechanical help.  This is especially useful for large valves that can only be operated by two people at the same time.
    • Rotary Actuator  -  Rotary actuators vary in terms of actuator torque and range of motion.  Depending on the valve’s design, the stem may rise during rotation or without rotation. 
      • Basic Lever  -  The most common manual operator on smaller quarter-turn valves.  A long handle is attached to the stem and provides the leverage needed to rotate the valve.
    • Limit Switch  -  Many times manual valves perform a function that does not require automated actuation, but the system still needs to know what postion they are in.  Manual valves with limit switches or position indicators.  While the valve is still operated manually, the switches communicate the valve's current position to the control system.
  • Electrical Actuator  -  Uses an alternating current or direct current motor to generate the torque required for valve operation.  The motor is attached to the valve stem through a series of gears and controlled by a cam-activated limit switch.  Together, these components allow for accurate and precise adjustment of the valve.
    • Linear Electrical Actuator  -  This converts electricity into linear motion to operate a linear valve.
    • Rotary Electrical Actuator  -  This converts electricity into rotary motion to operate a rotary valve.
  • Hydraulic Actuator  -  Hydraulic actuators are hydraulic devices that are propelled by pressured fluids like hydraulic fluid.  The hydraulic actuated valves of the same size are typically more powerful than pneumatic actuators.
    • Linear Hydraulic Actuator  -
    • Rotary Hydraulic Actuator  -  With a quarter turn or more from open to closure, rotary actuators are employed for valves with rotating motion like butterfly, ball, and plug valves.  A disc or an ellipse that revolves around an angular shaft typically serves as the closing element.
  • Pneumatic Actuator (Hydraulic)  -  Pressurized air is utilized to turn a valve.  They accomplish this by exerting air pressure (force) on a piston or a diaphragm that is fastened to the valve stem.
    • Double Action Pneumatic Actuator  -  Require air to be used to move the piston in either direction.  A solenoid valve is used to control the air flow into and venting of the actuator.  Since there is no spring force to overcome, a smaller actuator can often be used.
    • Linear Pneumatic Actuator  -  This convert the energy from compressed air into linear motion to operate linear valves.
    • Piston Actuator  -  If the stroke of a diaphragm actuator is too low or the thrust is insufficient, piston actuators are employed.  A solid piston inside a solid cylinder is subjected to compressed air.  The reasonable designs urge the piston higher by pressing air into a central chamber. 
    • Rotary Electrical Actuator  -  This convert the energy from compressed air into rotational motion to operate rotary valves.
    • Solenoid Actuator  -  A solenoid valve is an electrically controlled valve.  The valve has a solenoid, which is an electric coil with a movable ferromagnetic core, or plunger, in its center.  In the rest position, the plunger closes off a small orifice.  An electric current through the coil creates a magnetic field.  The magnetic field exerts an upwards force on the plunger opening the orifice.  This is how it open and close valve.
    • Spring Return Pneumatic Actuator  -  Use compressed air to move the piston in one direction, and a spring to push it back in the other when the air is stopped an allowed to vent.  This requires a larger actuator since it has to overcome the force of the spring in addition to providing enough torque to operate the valve.

 

Valve Datasheets

Valve TypeDatasheets
Valves All Valves, ANSI (in)
Ball Ball Valve, ANSI (in)
Butterfly Butterfly Valve, ANSI (in)
Check Check Valve, ANSI (in)
Gate Gate Valve, ANSI (in)
Globe Globe Valve, ANSI (in)
Plug Plug Valve, ANSI (in)

 

Valve Standards

API Standards

  • API 6D - Specification for Pipeline Valves
  • API 6FA - Fire Test for Valves
  • API 594 - Wafer and Wafer-Lug Check Valve
  • API 598 - Valve Inspection and Testing
  • API 599 - Metal Plug Valve - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends
  • API 600 - Steel Gate Valves, Flanged and Buttwelding Ends, Bolted and Pressure Seal Bonnets
  • API 602 - Compact Steel Gate Valves - Flanged, Threaded, Welded, and Extended Body Ends
  • API 603 - Class 150, Cast, Corrosion-Resistant, Flanged-End Gate Valve
  • API 607 - Fire Test for Soft Sealed Quarter Turn Valves
  • API 608 - Metal Ball Valves - Flanged and Butt Welding Ends
  • API 609 - Lug and Wafer Type Butterfly Valves

ASME Standards

  • ASME B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
  • ASME B16.10 - Face to Face and End to End Dimensions of Valves
  • ASME B16.11 - Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
  • ASME B16.25 - Butt Welding Ends
  • ASME B16.33 - Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems Up to 125 psig (sizes 1/2 through 2)
  • ASME B16.34 - Valves Flanged, Threaded and Welding End
  • ASTM B16.37 - Hydroststic Testing of Control Valves
  • ASTM B16.38 - Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution (Manually Operated, NPS 2 1/2 to 12, 125 psig maximum)
  • ASTM B16.40 - Manually Operated Thermoplastic Gs Shutoffs and Valves in Gas Distribution Systems
  • ASME B16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges
  • ASME B31.3 - Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
  • ASME B31.4 - Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping System
  • ASME B31.8 - Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping System

ASTM Standards

  • ASTM A182 - Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High Temperature Service
  • ASTM A193 - Specification for Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High Temperature Service
  • ASTM A194 - Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure and High Temperature Service
  • ASTM A694 - Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission Service

BSI Standards

  • BSI 1414 - Steel Wedge Gate Valve (Flanged and Butt Welding Ends) for the Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Industries
  • BSI 1868 - Steel Check Valve (Flanged and Butt Welding Ends) for the Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Industries
  • BSI 1873 - Steel Globe and Globe Stop and Check Gate Valve (Flanged and Butt Welding Ends) for the Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Industries
  • BSI 5352 - Steel Wedge Gate, Globe and Check Valves 50 mm and smaller for the Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Industries

ISO Standards

  • ISO 15848-1 - Industrial valves -- Measurement, test and qualification procedures for fugitive emissions -- Part 1: Classification system and qualification procedures for type testing of valves
  • ISO 15848-2 - Industrial valves -- Measurement, test and qualification procedures for fugitive emissions -- Part 2: Production acceptance test of valves

MSS Standards

  • MSS SP-6 - Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting-End Flanges of Valves and Fittings
  • MSS SP-25 - Standard Marking Systems for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions
  • MSS SP-44 -Steel Pipeline Flanges
  • MSS SP-53 - Quality Standards for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Magnetic Particle
  • MSS SP-54 - Quality Standards for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Radiographic
  • MSS SP-55 - Quality Standards for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Visual
  • MSS SP-61 - Pressure Testing for Steel Valves
  • MSS SP-82 - Valve Pressure Testing Method
  • MSS SP-70 - Cast Iron Gate Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends
  • MSS SP-71 - Cast Iron Swing Check Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends
  • MSS SP-79 - Socket-Welding Reducer Inserts
  • MSS SP-80 - Bronz Gate, Globe, Angle and Check Valve
  • MSS SP-82 - Valve Pressure Testing Methods
  • MSS SP-83 - Class 300 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket-Welding and Threaded
  • MSS SP-85 - Cast Iron Globe and Angle Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends
  • MSS SP-88 - Diaphragm Type Valves

NACE Standards

  • NACE MR0175 - Standard Material Requirements for Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment

 

Valve Abbreviations

  • Air Inlet Valve (AIV)
  • Air Operated Valve (AOV)
  • Back Pressure Valve (BPV)
  • Hand Valve (HV)
  • Blowdown Valve (BDV)
  • Quick Closing Valve (QCV)
  • Shut Off Valve (SOV)
  • Wye Valve (YV)
  • Ball Valve (BV)
    • Full Port Ball Valve (FPBV)
    • Floating Ball Valve (FBV)
    • Manually Operated Ball Valve (MOBV)
    • Metal Seated Ball Valve (MSBV)
    • Multi-Port Ball Valve (MBV)
    • Reduced Port Ball Valve (RPBV)
    • Standard Port Ball Valve (SPBV)
    • Three-way Port Ball Valve (3PBV)
    • Trunnion Ball Valve (TBV)
    • V-Port Ball Valve (VBV)
  • Butterfly Valve (BFV)
    • Double Offset Buterfly Valve (DOBFV)
    • Fire Tight Valve (FTBFV)
    • Flanged Style Butterfly Valve (FBFV)
    • High Performance Butterfly Valve (HPBFV)
    • Lug Style Butterfly Valve (LBFV)
    • Triple Offset Buterfly Valve (TOBFV)
    • Wafer Style Butterfly Valve (WBFV)
    • Zero Offset Buterfly Valve (ZOBFV)
  • Check Valve (CV)
    • Ball Check Valve (BCV)
    • Diaphragm Check Valve (DCV)
    • Dual Plate Flange Check Valve (FCV)
    • Dual Plate Lug Check Valve (LCV)
    • Dual Plate Wafer Check Valve (WCV)
    • Lift Check Valve (LCV)
    • Nozzle Check Valve (NCV)
    • Piston Check Valve (PCV)
    • Spring Loaded Check Valve (SLCV)
    • Stop Check Valve (SCV)
    • Swing Check Valve (SWCV)
    • Tilt Disk Check Valve (TDCV)
  • Control Valve (CLV)
    • Back Pressure Valve (BPV)
    • Choke Valve (CHV)
    • Flow Control Valve (FCLV)
    • Hydraulic Control Valve (HCLV)
    • Level Control Valve (LCLV)
    • Pressure Control Valve (PCLV)
    • Temperature Control Valve (TCLV)
  • Diaphragm Valve (DV)
  • Gate Valve (GV)
    • Flap Gate Valve (FGV)
    • Knife Gate Valve (KGV)
    • Slab Gate Valve (SLGV)
    • Slide Gate Valve (SGV)
    • Wedge Gate Valve (WGV)
  • Globe Valve (GLV)
    • Angle Globe Valve (AGLV)
    • Oblique Globe Valve (OGLV)
    • Straight Globe Valve (SGLV)
    • Three-way Globe Valve (3GLV)
    • Y Globe Valve (YGLV)
    • Z Globe Valve (ZGLV)
  • Pig Valve (PIGV)
  • Pinch Valve (PIV)
  • Plug Valve (PV)
    • Conical Plug Valve (CPV)
    • Cylindrical Plug Valve (CYPV)
    • Eccentric Plug Valve (EPV)
    • Expanding Plug Valve (EXPV)
    • Lift Plug Valve (LPV)
    • Lubricating Plug Valve (LUPV)
    • Multi Port Plug Valve (MPPV)
    • Non-lubricating Plug Valve (NLPV)
  • Relief Valve (RV)
    • Acting-type Pressure Relief Valve (APRV)
    • Diaphragm-type Pressure Relief Valve (DPRV)
    • Pilot Operated Relief Valve (PORV)
    • Piston-type Pressure Relief Valve (PPRV)
    • Power Actuated Relief Valve (PARV)
    • Pressure Reducing Valve (PRDV)
    • Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)
    • Pressure Safety Valve (PSV)
    • Spring Loaded Relief Valve (SLRV)
    • Vacuum Relief Valve (VRV)

 

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Display #
Title
Actuator
Back Pressure Valve
Ball Check Valve
Ball Valve
Bonnet
Butterfly Valve
Check Valve
Check Valve Standards
Choke Valve
Crack a Valve
Gate Valve
General Valve Standards
Globe Valve
Lift Check Valve
Lock Closed
Lock Open
Normally Closed
Normally Open
Plug Valve
Positioner
Pressure Relief Valve
Regulating Valve
Set Pressure
Stop Check Valve
Superimposed Backpressure
Swing Check Valve
Tilting Disk Check Valve
Valve Abbrevations
Valve Glossary
Valve Installation Guide
Valve Selection Guide
Valve Service Guide
Valve Sizing for Gas and Steam
Valve Sizing for Liquid

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