pipe banner 3Pipe is a hollow tube that can carry products such as fluid, gas, granular and more.  Pipe is identified by nominal pipe size and the wall thickness identified by schedule number.





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Pipe Glossary


pipe Types

  • Carbon Steel Pipe  -  Steel is an alloy.  An alloy is a mixture of at least two elements, one of which must be metallic.  In its simplest form, steel is two elements mixed together: iron and carbon.  Though carbon is the main alloying material for iron, some other elements, like tungsten, chromium, manganese, can also be used for the purpose. This is called carbon steel.  The more carbon there is contained in the steel, the stronger it gets when heated.  This makes the steel become less ductile.  The difference between steel and carbon steel is the amount of carbon in the material. 
  • Cement Lined Pipe  -  Cement lined pipe, also called Mild Steel Cement Lined, abbreviated as MSCL, is pipe that is internally coated with a mortar like compound that acts as a barrier between the carbon steel pipe and the process.  The lining may be applied by hand, as is the case with pipe fittings, or with a machine.  It is commonly used in the transmission of potable water and sewage applications.  It is also used when the process fluid may corrode regular carbon steel pipe.
  • Copper Pipe  -  Copper tubing has many uses and is used in just about every industry.  It is most often seen in domestic water supplies and used for potable water.  There are two basic types of copper tubing, soft and rigid copper.  During the manufacturing process, copper tubing is drawn through a die that hardens the metal.  This makes the tubing rigid.  To make the tube flexible again, it is annealed which softens the tube.  The flexible/softer copper tubing comes in schedule K and L.
  • Ductile Iron Pipe  -  Ductile iron is the successor to cast iron. Cast iron pipes were once frequently used in municipal utilities due to their cost-effectiveness and overall strength. However, this material was also heavy, prone to corrosion, and relatively brittle. To address these problems, ductile iron was introduced in the 1940s.
    It was found that the addition of magnesium alloy to molten iron significantly changed the microstructure of the material and improved its mechanical properties.
    Ductile iron maintains all the advantages of cast iron while improving on strength and ductility. This material also has a high strength to weight ratio, allowing lighter piping structures to be fabricated.
  • Non-metallic Pipe  -  Non-metallic minerals are naturally occurring combination of chemical elements that mostly lacks metallic attributes.   The key difference between metallic and nonmetallic minerals is that a metallic mineral is a combination of minerals that can be melted to gain new products whereas non-metallic minerals are a combination of minerals that do not produce new products on melting.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe  -  PVC pipes are made of polyvinyl chloride, a plastic that is made by combining chlorine and ethylene.  The finished product is a white or light-colored plastic that is rigid and durable.  PVC pipes are used for a variety of purposes, including water and wastewater conveyance, electrical wiring, and plumbing.  One of the benefits of PVC pipe is that it does not corrode when in contact with many common substances found in the environment, such as acids, bases, oils, and salts. 
  • Stainless Steel Pipe  -  Stainless steel is a unique form of steel which does not corrode.  It gets this property by employing chromium as a special hardening agent.  With the use of chromium, stainless steel has the basic properties of steel with the significantly increased corrosion resistance.  Like carbon steel, stainless steel also reacts to oxygen in the air to form an oxide layer.  However rather than form an iron oxide layer it forms a chromium oxide layer.
  • Wrought Iron Pipe  -  Wrought iron is commercially pure iron, having a very small carbon content (carbon content does not exceed 0.15 per cent), but usually contains some slag.  It is tough, malleable, ductile and can be easily welded.  Wrought iron pipe, abbreviated as WIP, is used for the water supply in older houses.  Wrought iron does not fuse easily so it cannot be cast.  Wrought iron is typically threaded into cast iron fittings.  Cast iron fittings have tapered threads, not screwed threads.  The pipe also comes in black or galvanized.


pipe Process

There are many methods of making carbon steel pipe, but the two basic methods result in seamless pipe or welded pipe.  There are several different processes for joining the pipe seams together, such as Electric Resistance Weld (ERW), Electric Fusion Weld (EFW) or furnace butt-weld.  Though it should be noted that the most common processes are ERW and EFW.

  • Standard pipe (seamless and welded) is used for air, gas, steam, and water lines for threading or welding and suitable for flanging or bending fall.  Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification ASTM A53.
  • Standard pipe (seamless only) is used for high temperatures and is suitable for flanging or bending.  Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification ASTM A106.
  • Line service pipe (seamless and welded) is used for transporting gas, oil, petroleum, and water.  Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification API Spec 5L.

Carbon steel pipe can be triple stamped so that it meets the criteria of ASTM A53, ASTM A106, or API 5L.  Each of these specifications requires that the pipe be marked with the spec that it is manufactured to.  The pipe will also specify the grade (e.g. Grade A, Grade B), which determines the specific metallurgy of the carbon steel pipe.

Even though both of the processes below can vary, the result is the same - "pipe."

Seamless Pipe  -  Seamless pipe is extruded into a solid steel tube (billet).  The billet is heated to the proper temperature to be pierced.  It is then cut to a length and pulled as it advances over the piercing tool, which forms a continuous hole.  This process happens again to reach the proper size desired.  Before going further, the pierced billet is reheated.

In the next operation, the pierced billet is rolled over a plug that reduces the diameter and wall thickness and increases the length of the billet.  Small sizes go to the next step.  For large sizes, the previous process is repeated.  The next step is the same for all sizes - the pipe is advanced over a mandrel, where both the inside and outside of the pipe are brushed and cleaned.

Reheating is needed again to obtain an even temperature.  It is passed through a series of rollers to give it the exact size and roundness, then placed on a conveyor belt where it begins to cool and straighten.  The final steps are facing and beveling, followed by inspection.  If it is rejected during inspection, it may become structural grade pipe or line service pipe.  If it passes inspection then goes to loading and shipping.

Welded Pipe  -  Welded pipe comes in coils from storage to the mill.  The coil is flattened and electrically welded together to form a continuous sheet.  Once the proper circumference has been reached, the process of forming the sheet to a round and continuous edge begins.  Next the high frequency welder heats the edge then pressure squeezes the heated edges together to form the weld.  The weld is inspected for any defects that may have occurred.

After the seam has been worked, it is cooled to the temperature required before sizing the pipe.  Once the pipe has passed through rollers that give the proper outside diameter and strength it is cut to a specific length.  Next, it is hydrostatic tested and put through straightening rollers.  The final step is facing and beveling.  If it passes inspection then it goes to loading and shipping.  If it is rejected during inspection, it may then become structural grade pipe or line service pipe.

Rejected Pipe  -  At the time of manufacturing, mills will reject pipe that cannot be graded as a prime product because of physical or chemical imperfections.  Pipe that passes inspection is sold to distributors and manufacturers.  The pipe that did not make the cut is sold with no warranty - you buy as is.  Rejected pipe, also known as structural grade pipe or line service pipe, can still be used in some cases if manufactured to ASTM or API standards.  The rejected pipe comes in all types, sizes, and materials and can still be used for purposes other than prime pipe: fencing, casing, posts, supports, etc.


Pipe Datasheets

Pipe TypeDatasheets
Pipe Pipe & Tubing
Pipe Pipe Layout
Pipe Pipe Spacing
Pipe Pipe Materials Specifications


Pipe standards

API Standards

  • API 5L - Specification for CRA Clad or Lined Pipe
  • API 15LE - PE Line Pipe
  • API 15LR - Low Pressure Fiberglass Line Pipe
  • API 1104 - Welded Pipelines and Related Facilities

ASME Standards

  • ASME B31.1 - Power Piping
  • ASME B31.3 - Process Piping
  • ASME B41.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries
  • ASME B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
  • ASME B36.10M - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
  • ASME B36.19M - Stainless Steel Pipe

ASTM Standards

  • ASTM A53 - Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless
  • ASTM A74 - Standard Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings
  • ASTM A106 - Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service
  • ASTM A333 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low Temperature Service
  • ASTM A716 - Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Culvert Pipe
  • ASTM A733 - Standard Specification for Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples
  • ASTM A746 - Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Gravity Sewer Pipe
  • ASTM A1053 - Standard Specification for Welded Ferritic-Martensitic Stainless Steel Pipe
  • ASTM C361 - Reinforced Concrete Low-Head Pressure Pipe
  • ASTM D1527 - Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
  • ASTM D1784 - Specification for Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Compounds
  • ASTM D1785 - Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80, and 120
  • ASTM D2104 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40
  • ASTM D2241 - Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series)
  • ASTM D2513 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
  • ASTM D2683 - Standard Specification for Socket-Type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter-Controlled Polyethylene Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM D3261 - Standard Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM D3350 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials
  • ASTM E213 - Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM E273 - Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of the Weld Zone of Welded Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM F423 - PTFE Plastic-Lined Ferrous Metal Pipe and Fittings
  • ASTM F437 - Threaded CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Sch 80
  • ASTM F438 - Socket-Type CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Sch 40
  • ASTM F439 - CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
  • ASTM F714 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter
  • ASTM F441 / F441M - Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
  • ASTM F512 - Standard Specification for Smooth-Wall Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Conduit and Fittings for Underground Installation
  • ASTM F714 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter
  • ASTM F2206 - Standard Specification for Fabricated Fittings of Butt-Fused Polyethylene (PE)

AWWA Standards

  • AWWA C105 -
  • AWWA C115 - Standard for Flanged Ductile Iron Pipe with Ductile-Iron or Gray-Iron Threaded Flanges
  • AWWA C207 - Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Service, Sizes 4 in. through 144 in.
  • AWWA C209 - Tape Coatings for Steel Water Pipe and Fittings
  • AWWA C215 - Extruded Polyolefin Coatings for Steel Pipe
  • AWWA C222 - Polyurethane Coatings and Linings for Steel Water Pipe and Fittings
  • AWWA C225 - Fused Polyolefin Coatings for Steel Water Line
  • AWWA C229 - Fusion-Bonded Polyethylene Coatings for Steel Water Pipe
  • AWWA C300 - Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids
  • AWWA C301 - Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids
  • AWWA C302 - Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Noncylinder Type
  • AWWA C304 - Design of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe
  • AWWA C621 - Internal Pipe Joint Seal Assemblies for Water Service
  • AWWA C622 - Pipe Bursting of Porable water Mains 4 in. to 36 in.
  • AWWA C900 - Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe and Fabricated Fittings, 4 In. Through 12 In. (100 mm Through 300 mm), for Water Transmission and Distribution
  • AWWA C901 - Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Tubing, 3.4 in. through 3 in
  • AWWA C906 - Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Fittings 4 In. (100 mm) Through 63 In. (1,600 mm) for Water Distribution and Transmission
  • AWWA C950 - Standard for Fiberglass Pressure Pipe
  • AWWA M11 - Steel Pipe - A Guide for Design and Installation
  • AWWA M23 - PVC Pipe - Design and Installation
  • AWWA M55 - PE Pipe - Design and Installation
  • AWWA M75 - Elastomers for Waterworks: Pipes, Valves, and Fittings


Pipe Glossary


  • ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)  -  A ridged black plastic pipe used for drain, waste, and vent lines.
  • Allowable Pipe Span  -  The distance between pipe supports that is allowed before the deflection is to great.
  • ASME B31.3 Pipe Thickness Calculator  -  The B31.3 Code contains requirements for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals.


  • Bleed Ring  -  Inserted between two butt welding joints before welding to allow for complete penetration.
  • Barlow's Formula  -  The point just before or at when a pipe or tubing fails under pressure.
  • Belled End Fittings  -  Used instead of buttwelded fittings.  They are a lot faster to install because there is no nead to bevel the connecting pipe and because making up the weld is a lot faster.
  • Bernoulli's Equation  -  A way of describing the conservation of energy principle in an incompressible fluid.
  • Black Pipe  -  Lacquered outside diameter of the pipe.
  • Burr  -  A small piece of metal remaining on the edge after machining.  It is normally removed or deburred by grinding or milling the object.


  • Casing in a Well  -  There are different types of casing found in production, steam or water injection, or gas wells.
  • Cathodic Protection  -  A method used to control corrosion on the surface of a metal which can be above or below ground pipes, tanks, vessels, etc.
  • Cement Lined Pipe  -  Cement Lined Pipe is pipe that is internally coated with a mortar like compound that acts as a barrier between the carbon steel pipe and the process.
  • Cold Bending  -  The bending of pipe to a predetermined radius at any temperature below some specified phase change or transformation temperature but especially at or near room temperature.
  • Cold Working  -  Ordinarily done at room temperature, but may be done at the temperature and rate at which strain hardening occures.
  • Copper Pipe  -  Copper tubing has many uses and is used in just about every industry.  It is most often seen in domestic water supplies and used for potable water.
  • Corrosion  -  The thinning of a pipe wall that is typically caused by a chemical reaction from a corroding fluid or agent and is limited almost exclusively to metal products.
  • Corrosion Allowance  -  The amount of material in a pipe or vessel that is available for corrosion without affecting the pressure containing integrity.
  • Cut Length  -  Straight pipe comes in random, double random, and cut lengths.  Random lengths are from 18 to 25 feet, and sometimes double random lengths from 38 to 48 feet.


  • Density  -  The ratio of the amount of matter in an object compared to its volume.
  • Dew Point  -  The temperature at which air must be cooled to become saturated with water vapor.
  • Double Extra Strong  -  This is a standard pipe weight designation and is abbreviated as XXS.
  • Draw Pipe  -  Pipe brought to the final dimensions by drawing through a die.
  • Drill Pipe  -  Pipe used in the drilling of an oil or gas well.  This pipe is the conduit between the wellhead motor and the drill bit.
  • Dynamic Pressure  -  The amount of total pressure resulting from the media velocity.


  • Electric Furnace  -  A method to produce steel, basically from scrap metal.
  • Extra Strong  -  A standard pipe weight and abbreviated as XS, also described as extra heavy (XH).
  • Extruded Pipe  -  Pipe produced from hollow or solid round forgings, usally in a hydraulic extrusion press.


  • Fitting  -  A piping component that is used to join piping, change the direction or diameter of piping or end the pipe.
  • Flange  -  A bolted connection where two pieces of pipe, equipment, fittings or valves are connected together to form a piping system.
  • Flexural Strength  -  The measure of a materials ability to withstand a specified deformation under a beam load.
  • Flow Line  -  A pipe that that carries oil, gas or water from the wellhead to a well-test manifold or production facilities.
  • Flow Rate  -  The amount of fluid that flows in a given time past a specific point.
  • Fluid Pressure  -  Fluid at rest, exerts a force perpendicular to any surface in comes in contact with.

  • Friction  -  The mechanical resistance to the relative movement of two surfaces.


  • Galvanic Corrosion  -  Corrosive action occuring when two dissimilar metals are in contact and are joined by a solution capable of conducting an electric current, a condition which causes a flow of electric current and corrosion of the more anodic of the two metals.
  • Gathering Line  -  A pipe that that carries oil, gas or water from the wellhead to a well-test manifold or production facilities.
  • General Pipe Standards  -  There are a lot of standards and specifications that cover various types of pipe.
  • Grade  -  A class of steel defining amongst others, chemistry, tensile strength, and yield strength


  • Head Pressure  -  The pressure at a specific point to the vertical distance at another specific point.
  • Hoop Stress  -  The circumferential and perpendicular stress to the axis imposed on a cylinder wall when exposed to an internal pressure load.
  • Hydraulic Radius  -  The area cross-section of water in a pipe or channel divided by the wetting perimeter.


  • Iron Pipe Size  -  Originally established for wrought iron pipe. ASME B36.10M - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe lists these dimensions.



  • Kinematic Viscosity  -  The ratio of dynamic viscosity to density or the resistive flow of a fluid under the influance of gravity.


  • Laminar Flow  -  Generally happens when dealing with low Reynolds numbers in pipes.


  • Manifold  -  At its most basic level, a piping manifold is a wide pipe that serves as a collector for several smaller pipes.
  • Mass  -  The amount of matter an object has.
  • Mass Flow Rate   -  The average velocity of a mass that passes by a point.
  • Material Hardness  -  The property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration.


  • Nominal Diameter  -  The external size diameter designated of pipe or threads.
  • Non-metallic Pipe  -  There are several advantages and limitations between using metallic or nonmetallic materials instead of using steel piping.


  • Operating Pressure  -  The level of pressure at which a component, pipe, tube, hose or other fluid passage will experience during application of maximum expected fluid pressure.


  • Pascal's Law  -  The increase in pressure is uniformly applied in all directions in a confined fluidPipe
  • Pipe Bore  -  A hole or inside diameter in a cylinder or object.  It is commonly used in piping, pipe fittings and pipe flanges.
  • Pipe End  -  A pipe end is the description of how the section of pipe ends.  There are three main types of pipe ends: beveled, threaded or plain.
  • Pipe Rack  -  Is used to support piping, instrumentation, cable tray and other components in a process facility.
  • Pipe Schedule  -  The term used to describe the thickness of a pipe.
  • Piping One-line Drawing  -  A piping single line drawing is a piping drawing that shows the size and location of pipes, fittings and valves.
  • Pipeline Parameter  -  Proportional to maximum water hammer pressure rise and static pressure.
  • Pipeline Pigging  -  A PIG is a Pipeline Inspection Gauge.  PIG's scrape the inside of the pipeline and perform cleaning maintenance on the wall.
  • Porosity  -  Presence of gas pockets or voids in metal.
  • Pressure  -  It is the force exerted perpendicular to the surface of an object and is expressed as force per unit area.
  • Pressure Loss  -  The difference in upstream and downstream pressure.
  • Pressure Rating  -  The estimated maximum pressure a liquid can exert continuously inside the pipe at which the pipe will not fail.  Normally 1.5 times working pressure.
  • Proof Pressure  -  The pressure at which a component, pipe, tube, hose or other fluid passage will not yield during application of internal pressure.
  • Pup  -   is a short length of pipe, typically six inches in length or less that connects two piping components.


  • Quenching  -  A process of quickly cooling an elevated temperature.


  • Random Length  -  Straight pipe comes in random, double random, and cut length.  Random lengths (RL)are from 18 to 25 feet, and sometimes double random lengths from 38 to 48 feet.
  • Resistance Welding  -  A group of welding processes used to weld metal using electric current to force join by pressure of the metals.
  • Reynolds Number  -  Measures the ratio of inertial forces (forces that remain at rest or in uniform motion) to viscosity forces (the resistance to flow).
  • Rolled Pipe  -  Pipe produced from a forged billet which is pierced by a conical mandrel between to diametrically opposing rolls.
  • Roll Forming  -  A continuous bending operation in which a long strip of metal (typically coiled steel) is passed through consecutive sets of rolls, or stands, each performing only an incremental part of the bend, until the desired cross-section profile is obtained.


  • Schedule Number  -  A number system setup by ANSI and ASME for the purpose of standardization to designate the size of a pipe.
  • Single Random Length  -  Lne pipe with a 17.5' minimum average length or as defined by specifications.
  • Sleeve  -  Pipe which is passed through a wall for the purpose of inserting another pipe through it.
  • Slug Flow  -  Occurs when the speed of the vapor phase pushes the waves from the wavy flow regime onto each other.
  • Specific Gravity  -  The density or ratio of any substance to another substance.
  • Spiral Welded  -  A method of manufacturing pipe by coiling a plate into a helix and fusion welded the overlapped or abutted edges.
  • Spiral-welded Pipe  -  Formed by twisting strips of metal into a spiral shape, similar to a barber.  A pole, then welding where the edges join one another to form a seam.
  • Spiral Wound Pipe  -  Spiral-welded pipe is formed by twisting strips of metal into a spiral shape, similar to a barber.  A pole, then welding where the edges join one another to form a seam.
  • Spool  -  A pipe spool is a section of pipe that is created in a fabrication shop.
  • Standard Dimension Ratio  -  A dimensionless term that comes from dividing the average outside diameter of the pipe by the minimum pipe wall thickness.
  • Standard Weight  -  A piping designation that denotes the wall thickness.
  • Statically Cast Pipe  -  Pipe formed by the solidification of molten metal in a sand mold.
  • Stress  -  The force per unit area of cross-section.
  • Swaging  -  Reducing the ends of the pipe and tube sections with rotating dies which are passed intermittently against the pipe or tube end.


  • Tension Strength  -  The capacity of a material to resist a force tending to stretch it.
  • Thermal Expansion  -  The increase in length, area or volume due to the increase (in some cased decrease) in temperature.
  • Thermoplastic  -  A plastic which is capable of repeatedly softened by the increase of temperature and hardened by the decrease of temperatsure.
  • Thixotropic Liquid  -  The viscosity of a liquid decreases as agitation is increased at a constant temperature.
  • Torque  -  The rotational force used to move a shart.
  • Toughness  -  The ability of a material to absorb considerable energy without fracturing.



  • Valve  -  A mechanism used to stop or open and regulate flow.
  • Vapor  -  The gas state of a liquid or solid.  Both vapor and gas are basically the same thing.
  • Vapor Pressure  -  The pressure at a certain temperature when the liquid and vapor are in equilibrium.
  • Velocity  -  The rate of change or displacement with time


  • Wash  -  A casting defect resulting from erosion of sand by metal flowing over the mold or corded surfaces.  They appear as rough spots and excess metal on the casting surface.
  • Water Hammer  -  Occurs when a valve is suddenly opened or closed.
  • Water Hardening  -  Process of hardening high carbon steels by quenching in water or brine, after heating.
  • Welded End  -  Description used to describe an end connection type.  A non beveled end type connection would be used on a socket weld or a slip on flange type connection. 
  • Welding  -  The fabrication process that fuses like materials togeather by heating them to a suitable temperatures, this can be acomplished by brazing, soldering or welding.
  • Wrought Iron  -  A commercially pure iron, having a very small carbon content (carbon content does not exceed 0.15 per cent), but usually contains some slag.
  • Wrought Iron Pipe  -  Used for the water supply in older houses.  Wrought iron does not fuse easily so it cannot be cast.



  • Yield  -  The ratio of the quantity of finished shipments to the total raw steel produced, adjusted for changes in inventory and any slabs that are ourchased from outside.
  • Yield Strength  -  The minimum stress that leads to permanent deformation of the material.



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ASME B31.3 Pipe Thickness Calculator
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