When sizing a boiler you must have enough capacity to handle the maximum hourly load of the system. You should always install a boiler with future expansion in mind. More than one may be required depending how critical it is for continuous service during shutdown and maintenance. All boilers should be equipped with fully automatic controls to provide adequate safety at all times. All equipment in the system should be rated at least to the maximum allowable working pressure. Equipment and controls should meet if not exceed ASME, UA, local, state and all applicable codes.
Boilers require fresh air and ventilation and must be installed in areas where both can be attained. When in confined rooms permanent openings for air transfer should be provided. Vents and draft creating equipment may be needed to achieve proper movement. The venting system should be wired to the boiler to assure proper air when the boiler is fired up. At least two doors at a minimum are recommended for ingress and egress to insure proper safety for personnel.
When boilers are not used for periods of time, such as seasonal or storage in freezing weather the system should be drained so not to damage the equipment.
Nomenclature & Symbols
Boilers based on tubes:
- Fire Tube Boiler - An external heating source produces hot gas which is then passed throught tubes that run through a container or vessel. The heat from the tubes is transfered to the water contained in the vessel which intern creates steam.
- Water Tube Boiler - This is basically reversed from a fire tube boiler. Water passes throught tubes that run through a container or vessel which intern creates steam. Hot gas surrounds the tubes that is pumped into a vessel from an external source.
Boilers by fuel:
- Hot water boiler - A pressure vessel, fired or unfired, used to heat water. They can be classified by: low pressure boiler, high pressure or temperature power boiler, or miniature boiler depending on the various codes.
- Steam boiler - A closed pressure vessel, fired or unfired, used to create steam by applying heat. They can be classified by: low pressure boiler, high pressure or power boiler, small power boiler or miniature boiler depending on the various codes.
- Water boiler - Designed to heat supply water and has automatic controls to limit the temperature to a maximum of 210°.
- API RP 535 - Burners for Fired Heaters in General Refinery Services
- API RP 573 - Inspection of Fired Boilers and Heaters
- ISO 16528-1 - Boilers and pressure vessels -- Part 1: Performance requirements
- ISO 16528-2 - Boilers and pressure vessels -- Part 2: Procedures for fulfilling the requirements of ISO 16528-1
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- Absolute pressure - A pressure at absolute zero can only exist in a total vacuum and any pressure above this is called absolute pressure.
- Air-fuel ratio - The ratio of air weight to fuel weight consumed in a furnace.
- Allowable working pressure - The maximum pressure for which the boiler was designed and constructed.
- Ambient temperature - When outdoors the ambient temperature is the current surrounding environment air temperature. This temperature has nothing to do with high or low forcasts.
- Boiler crown - The upper round plates of a boiler of the shell type boiler.
- Boiler horsepower - The evaporation of 34-1/2 lbs of water per hour from a temperature of 212\(^\circ\)F into dry saturated steam at the same temperature.
- Boiler plate - A mild steel plate, generally produced by the open hearth process, used mainly for the shells and drums of steel boilers.
- Boiler pressure - The pressure at which steam is generated in a boiler.
- Boiler rating - The heat capacity of a boiler expressed in boiler horsepower, Btu/hr, or pounds of steam/hr.
- Boiler shell - The outer cylindrical portion of a pressure vessel.
- Brinell hardness number - Is a value assigned to the hardness of metals and alloys.
- Check valve - These valves are designed to allow the process fluid to flow in only one direction to prevent backflow.
- Combustion - A reaction called rapid oxidation or burning produced with the right combination of a fuel, oxygen, and heat.
- Corrosion - The thinning of a pipe wall that is typically caused by a chemical reaction from a corroding fluid or agent and is limited almost exclusively to metal products.
- Design pressure - The pressure the vessel is designed for.
- Design temperature - The temperature the vessel is designed for.
- Enthalpy - Measures the sum of internal energy changes in heat under constant pressure of the system.
- Exhaust gas damper - Used to control the pressure in an exhaust gas boiler.
- Expansion joint - Heat and cold causes piping systems to expand and contract.
- Feedwater - The water supplied to a boiler to replace that evaporated as steam or blown off.
- Feedwater heater - An apparatus for raising the temperature of boiler feedwater by abstracting some of the heat from exhaust steam or from the hot gases of combustion.
- Feedwater line - The pipeline through which the water is fed to the boiler from the feedwater tank with the help of a pump.
- Friction loss - How much loss of flow through a pipe is due to the viscosity, the measure of the internal friction/resistance to the flow of a liquid near the surface of the pipe.
- Furnace - That part of the boiler designed for burning the fuel.
- Head loss - A pressure loss due to the resistance of the fluid and obstructions along the way in a pipe.
- Heat - A form of energy that causes physical change in what is being heated.
- Heat transfer by convection - Convection is the energy transfer of heat by air, water, or any other fluid to and object.
- Hotwell - A tank for the condensate returns and from which the feed water pump takes its suction.
- Insulation - A material of low thermal conductivity used to reduce heat loss.
- Joint efficiency - The ratio of the strength of a section of riveted or welded joint to the strength of a related section of solid plate.
- Laminar flow - Generally happens when dealing with low Reynolds numbers in pipes. This could be due to low velocities, large diameters or high viscosities.
- Latent heat - The energy absorbed or released by a substance during a constant temperature or phase change from a solid to liquid, liquid to gas or vise versa.
- Live steam - Steam available directly from a boiler under full pressure.
- Makeup water - Raw water that has been filtered and softened and then introduced into the hotwell to compensate for the water loss in the system.
- Motive pressure - Line velocity pressure in steem piping.
- Natural circulation - The circulation of water in a boiler caused by the differences in density.
- Pressure - It is the force exerted perpendicular to the surface of an object and is expressed as force per unit area.
- Pressure drop - See pressure loss.
- Pressure indicating transmitter - An instrument for measuring, controlling and indicating positive, negative or differential pressures of different fluids.
- Pressure loss - The difference in pressure between two points, usually caused by friction resistance in the pipe, but moisture can also affect it.
- Pressure safety valve - Also known as a pressure relief valve and is used to protect vessels and tanks from overpressure.
- Raw water - Water supplied to the plant before any treatment.
- Steam - The invisible vapor (gas) when water is heated to its boiling point and passes from a liquid to a gaseous state.
- Steam gauge - A device for indicating gauge pressure.
- Stop-check valve - Essentially, two valves built into one. It can act as a globe valve to isolate or control the flow rate. It also acts as a check valve by preventing reverse flow.
- Stop Valve - Stop valves are used to shut off or partially shut off the flow of liquids.
- Temperature - Normally described as the amount of heat or cold, but it is neither heat or cold.
- Thermal conductivity - The ability to transfer heat within a material without any motion of the material.
- Waste heat - Sensible heat in non-combustible gases discharged to the environment.
- Water hammer - Occurs when a valve is suddenly opened or closed.
- Water line - The level at which water stands in the boiler.
- Water softener - Used to remove dissolved minerals from water. Hard water can leave mineral scale after evaporation.
- Working pressure - The normal pressure that a system operates at.
- Yield point - The point where an elastic material is permanent change in length with no extra load force.
- Yield strength - The minimum stress that leads to permanent deformation of the material.